Four things you didn’t know about the “who” command

Who is a very used command, and, as most of us know,  is a command to find out who’s working on your system.). But the who command can do much more then showing who is logged on. On his blog, Mike presents 4 options to use with who that “make it a great troubleshooting and statistics gathering command”.  These options are:

 

who –r  : Prints the current runlevel

who –b :  Prints the system boot time

who –t  : Prints out the last time the System Clock was changed

who –d : Prints out a list of all the dead processes on your system

 

Read the full article …

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The fastest way to navigate in GNOME

Here is a tip about how to navigate in GNOME-the fast way.  While on the desktop (with no window focused), press the / key to open the Nautilus navigation bar.

To navigate to a specific location type the folders path in the bar.

Also, you can navigate to the special locations, using the paths as they are presented on killer tech tips:

burn:///
Opens the CD Writing Window.

computer:///


Shows Computer, lists the disk partitions

 

fonts:///
Lists the available fonts.

 

ftp:///

Connects you to the specified ftp address.

 

network:///
Lists network locations.

 

smb:///

Opens the Samba (file sharing) Window.

 

system-settings:///


Opens the System Settings Window.

 

themes:///
Lists the available GNOME themes.

If you know some others URI’s, please present them.

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How to lock the screen in GNOME

I’m sure that many of you are used with the <Win>+<L> key combination in
windows, to lock the screen. In Ubuntu (the distro I use), the
corespondent shortcut is <CTRL>+<ALT>+<L>. But, in many other distros
there is no shortcut for this command. Here is what you can do to assign a shortcut for locking the screen. (In order to do that, you have to activate the Win key. Read “How to use the Win key in Linux” to find out how to do it.)
Open the gconf-editor by typing “gconf-editor” in the terminal.

nongeek@mma:~$ gconf-editor

Go to: apps>metacity>keybinding_commands

select keybindings-commnads

Read more>>



Top 15 shortcut keys in GNOME and Nautilus

Many users are not aware of the shortcuts that can be use in GNOME and it’s File Manager, Nautilus. Therefore, I made up this list with the most useful (in my opinion) hotkeys. Hope it helps:

 

Top 15 shortcut keys in Gnome and Nautilus:

 

Ctrl-N: open new window

Ctrl-Shift-N: create new folder

Ctrl-H: show hidden files

Alt-Home : jump to home folder

Alt-Enter : file / folder properties

F9 : toggle side-pane

Alt-F1 : launch applications menu

Alt-F2 : launch “run application” dialogue

Ctrl-Alt Right/Left arrow : move to the next virtual desktop

Ctrl-AltShift – Right/Left arrow : take current window to the next virtual desktopCtrl-Alt-D: minimize all windows, and gives focus to the desktop.

Alt-Tab: switch between windows. When you use these shortcut keys, a list of windows that you can select is displayed. Release the keys to select a window.

Ctrl-Alt-Tab: switch the focus between the panels and the desktop. When you use these shortcut keys, a list of items that you can select is displayed. Release the keys to select an item.

Ctrl-Alt-L: lock the screen (it works in Ubuntu-I don’t know about other distros)\

Ctrl-L: shortcut for opening locations-by default the path is the home folder*

A useful hint that I found on the excellent Fosswire blog:

/ : same as Ctrl-L but has the root (/) as default path*

 * both shortcuts can be used while you are on the desktop (no window active)

 

And a suggestion:

Ctrl-T : move to trash (in Nautilus)

This is a dangerous key combination because many of us are used to press these keys in order to open a new tab. Because we all delete items using the Delete key, I recommend to deactivate this shortcut key. To do that, go to System » Preferences »  Appearance » Interface. Select Editable menu shortcut keys and close the dialog box. Click on the Edit menu in the File Browser. Click the Empty Trash item (it has Ctrl-T as the keyboard shortcut) Press the Delete key to get rid of the shortcut.

You cand find all GNOME shortcut keys on: http://library.gnome.org/users/user-guide/latest/keyboard-skills.html.en

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How to easily install an application in Linux

Many new linux users are very confused on how to actually install programs in Linux Distribution. It is true that installing new software in MS Windows is very easy. But in Linux is not only easy but very convenient. Why? In this post you will find the answer.
Let’s say that we need a photo managing software. In Windows we would search on internet after a suitable software and after finding one, we would download the package and install it. Now we will do the same thing in Linux. Let’s say that our linux distro is Ubuntu.

1.Will go to Applications -> Add/Remove and click on it:

Add/Remove Menu
2.In the Search box we will write what we are looking for, a “photo managing” application. Hit the Enter key.

Searchbox
3.Under the search box we have the applications which match our filter criteria. There is also a short description of each one of it.
4.Let’s say we would like to try F-Spot Photo Manager. Will check the corresponding box.Click on the “Apply Changes” button.

Selecting the application and starting the installation
5. We are ask to check our options. We want to install F-Spot so click the “Apply” button.

Confirm the installation
6.Linux is a very secured OS so, in order to install a application, the user password is required. Enter it and click the “OK” button.

Paswword request
7.We are anounced that the application has been installed. We don’t want to install anything else (yet) so we close the application

Close the application


This is not the only way to install a program in linux. Depending on the linux distribution you have, you could use another package manager (like yum, synaptic, etc.). Or you could use the faster method: the command line. If you know the name of the application you want to install, simply write:

nongeek@mma:~$ sudo apt-get install application_name

or (in fedora):

nongeek@mma:~# yum install application_name

That’s all. Easy, isn’t it?
Let’s list the benefits:
1.We didn’t search all over the internet. We have the most stable applications gathered in one place (called repository).
2.We installed the application with only one click (and a password).
3.We are not afraid of any malware.
I also recommend for reading what is (in my opinion) the best guide about installing applications in linux on the net: How to install ANYTHING in Ubuntu!

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The Linux filesystem in simple words

If you are new to Linux, one of the first things that, probably, dizzied you was that the linux filesystem is nothing like the one you were used in Windows. The first thing a new Linux user should understand is that while in Windows each partition/device is it’s own root (C: D: E:), in Linux every partition/device is mounted under the root directory (“/“) and it is represented as a sub-directory. The second thing the new user should understand is the purpose of each directory contained under the / (root directory). In order to help you familiarize with it, in the next section I gave a description of each part (directory) of the root system. Don’t worry, is not a complicated thing.

/ -root directory of your entire file system.

/bin/-executables needed during bootup, the shells, as well as most used commands (cp, mv, ls etc.) and other essential programs, shared by the system, the system administrator and the users.
/boot/-files used by the boot loader (the application that loads first when the computer is booted and if you have more than one OS on your computer, gives you the option to select one). Also stores the configuration files.
/dev/-device files. In Linux, hardware devices are represented as files with special properties (A file, as well as a hardware, can be read from and written to, isn’t it so?)
/etc/-system configuration file (similar to the data in the Control Panel in Windows)
/home/-personal directories for common users. This directory also contains the user specific settings (for different programs) and the customization files.
/lib/-shared libraries required by system programs (similar -somehow- to Windows DLL files). This directory also contains the kernel modules
/media/-mount point for removable media (usb, sticks, cdrom). Any device/partition mounted in this directory will have a shortcut on the desktop.
/mnt/-mount points for temporarily mounted filesystem (hdd partitions, network shares).
/opt/-optional applications (extra and third party software, add-on packages)
/sbin/-system administration as well as maintenance and hardware configuration programs (not intended for use by general users)
/srv/-data files for particular service provided by this system
/tmp/-temporary files. This directory is cleared out at reboot.
/usr/-multi-user shared binaries and files (utilities, applications, libraries, documentation etc.). Similar, somehow, to Windows Program Files
/var/-variable files (log files, the mail queue, the print spooler area)
/root/-personal (home) directory of the system administrator (root user)
/proc/-virtual file system containing information about system resources (tracks the state of the operating system kernel and the processes running on your computer)
You can find extended information about the Linux File System on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard webpage.


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